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acid rain: rain that is formed when sulphur dioxide combines with water vapour and falls to the earth
algae: single-celled plants containing chlorophyll
algicide: chemical that kills algae when added to the water
ammonia: a strong smelling colourless gas consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen
amphibian: a cold-blooded vertebrate animal that spends the first stage in their life cycle in water, and the second stage on land
ANSI: Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest which are recognized as centers of species and habitat richness
aquarium: artificial pond or tank designed to house live aquatic plants and animals
aquatic: growing or living in water
aquifer: porous, water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bed rock that can yield an economically significant amount of water

Bacillus thuringiensis: a bacteria which produces a toxin which is poisonous to soft bodied invertebrates. The bacteria interferes with digestion and the insect larva dies.
base flow: the portion of a streams flow contributed by ground water, seepage, or water moving over the land
biodiversity: variety of different species
biomass: the weight of all organic matter in the ecosystem
bioregion: large assemblages of ecosystems defined by some geological feature like a large river boundary or height of land
biotic: the living components of an ecosystem
biotic community: a community of living organisms
bog: peat accumulating acidic wetland dominated by mosses and little inflow or outflow
bottomland/riverine: usually located along river floodplains; may be seasonally flooded. Often located at bottom of steep slopes and fill with spring meltwater or seepage from the slope. Created by river scouring during floods or old river scars and oxbows.
buffer: an area or zone designated to remain or be enhanced to reduce the impact or an adjacent activity

carnivore: organism that feeds on animal tissue
colonize: the first to arrive at a new habitat
conservation: resources should be used, managed and protected so they will not be degraded and unnecessarily wasted and will be available to present and future generations
contours: lines on a map connecting points of equal elevation
cryptic species: plants and animals that have pattern, colour or behaviour that makes then difficult to find or distinguish in their environment

deciduous plants: trees such as oaks and maples, and other plants that survive during dry seasons or cold seasons by shed ding their leaves
detritus: fresh to partly decomposed plant and animal matter
(water drawdown):
to remove water from a wetland
dike: a raised bank constructed to prevent flooding
dispersal corridor: well defined area in which animals and plants move; see habitat corridor
drawdown: see dewatering

ecology: the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their non-living environment
ecosystem: community of different species interacting with one another and with the non-living environment
edge environment: the zone in which two or more different communities meet and integrate
emergent aquatic plants: a plant the is rooted in the soil with most of the stem above water
ephemeral wetland: seasonal ponds that fill with spring meltwater or after rain, but dry by mid-summer
equilibrium: a state of balance
ESA: Environmentally Sensitive Area which is recognized as centers of species and habitat richness
eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of a body of water; called cultural eutrophication when accelerated by introduction of massive amounts of nutrients by human activity
exotic: any foreign organism which is introduced to an area
extinction: complete disappearance of a species from the earth. This occurs when a species cannot adapt and successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or evolves into one or more new species

fauna: referring to animal life
fen: peat accumulating wetland that has alkaline ground water inflow from mineral soils
fern glade: a stand of ferns. Represents the humidity and moisture favoured by frogs and toads
flora: referring to plant life
fragmented landscape: once continuous, but now isolated landforms or ecosystem
fry: the immature form of a fish species

gene pool: the sum of all the genes of all individuals in a population
germination: the growth of a seed under favourable conditions
ground water recharge: the process that occurs when the water moves downward through stream channels or recharge wells, to replenish groundwater

habitat: place where a plant or animal lives
habitat corridor: an area of land such as a linear drainage ditch, or hedgerow which serves the function of connecting islands of wildlife habitat
herbicide: chemical that kills a plant or inhibits its growth
herpetologist: a person who studies amphibians and reptiles
heterogeneous: composed of a diverse number of elements
hibernaculum: a frost free refuge in which animals (i.e. snakes) hibernate
hibernate: the period of winter dormancy for certain organisms, characterized by a great decrease in metabolism
homogeneous: consisting of all parts of the same kind (uniform)
hydrological profile: the water characteristic of an area
hydrological "sink": area in which water accumulates or flows to
hydrology: the study of the movement of water
hydroperiod: the time in which an area is under water

impervious: does not let liquid (water) pass through
indicator species: changes in the abundance or distribution of these species indicates a change in the habitat which supports them
infiltration: downward movement of water through soil
inundation: overflow or flood with water
invertebrate: animals that do not have a backbone

larva: the immature stage in the life of an animal
lemna: duck weed

mammal: class of animals having mammae for nourishment of young
marginal plants: plants which grow around the edge of ponds
marsh: wetland dominated by emergent plants
microhabitat: the particular parts of the habitat that an individual encounters in the course of its activities
monoculture: one type of plant
muskeg: frozen peatlands

natural regeneration: renewed growth of plants occurring naturally rather than through planting
nitrate: a chemical used in fertilizer, which can cause water pollution
nutrient cycle: pathway of an element or nutrient through the ecosystem from assimilation by organisms to release by decomposition
nutrient load: excess nutrients
nutrification: the process of adding nutrients

organic: material containing carbon as the result of once being alive
overstory: plants that produce a leaf layer under which other plants grow
oxygenated: adding oxygen
oxygenating plants: plants that produce oxygen

peak flow: the highest flow
percolation: the movement of water through the pore space of soil
perennial: a plant that persists and produces reproductive structures year after year
permeable: the degree to which water can flow freely from one pore within rock and soil, to the next
pesticide: any chemical designed to kill or inhibit the growth of an organism that people consider to be undesirable
pHnumeric value that indicates the relative acidity or alkalinity of a substance on a scale of 0 to 14, with the neutral point at 7. Acid solutions have pH values lower than 7, and basic or alkaline solutions have pH values greater than 7
phytoplankton: small, drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria, found in aquatic ecosystems
pioneer successional
first hardy species, often microbes, mosses and lichens, that begin colonizing a site at the first stage of succession
pond aerator: a mechanical device or pump that increases the mixing of oxygen into the water
predation: situation in which an organism (the predator) captures and feeds on another organism called the prey
presettlement ecosystem: the mature ecosystem found prior to clearing or settlement

regeneration: generate again; bring into renewed existence
rehabilitation: restore to proper condition

saturated: occurs when a solute can not be further dissolved in a solution
sedimentation: the settling of particles on the bottom of a pond or river
seed bank: the seeds left in soil which have the potential to germinate under the appropriate light and moisture conditions
slope profile: the slope of the banks in a river or pond
soil profile: cross-sectional view of the horizons in a soil
soil saturation: soils in which air spaces are filled with water
spawn: the fertilized eggs of fish or amphibians
species: a group of organisms that are similar in structure and can mate and produce fertile offspring
stone rip-rap: wire cages filled with stone that protect shore lines from erosion
stormwater retention
a pond which serves the purpose of temporarily holding excess stormwater in order to prevent flooding
substrate: material lining the bottom of a pond
succession: replacement of one community by another; often progresses to a stable terminal community called the climax
successional stage: one community at any given time in the succession of species
surface runoff: water flowing off the land into bodies of surface water
sustainable: forms of economic growth and activities that do not deplete or degrade natural resources upon which present and future economic growth depend
swale: low area between raised areas of land
swamp: wetland dominated by trees and shrubs

tadpole: aquatic larvae of frog or toad
terrestrial: referring to the land
toadlet: newly developed toad
turf: soil with grass

ultraviolet inhibitors: chemicals which reduce damage from UV light
understory: lowest level of plants under taller plant species

watershed: the entire drainage area of a river or stream and their tributaries
weir: a dam created in order to raise the level of the water behind it
weldmesh: wire mesh
wetland: land that is covered all or part of the year with salt water or fresh water, excluding streams, lakes and the open ocean
wet meadow: grassland with waterlogged soil; often inundated for short periods but without standing water in the growing season
wild life: all forms of life within an ecosystem, from microbes through plants and animals

zooplankton: animal plankton. Small floating herbivores that feed on plant plankton

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