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Regions > African Rainforest > Lake Malawi cichlids

Lake Malawi cichlids

Location at the Zoo: African Rainforest



Region:

Africa

Class:

Osteichthyes

Order:

Perciformes

Family:

Cichlidae





Distribution

: Lake Malawi

Food

: Most of the fishes are rock-dwelling species that are adapted to scraping algae off the rocks. Their African name is mbuna cichlids.

Reproduction and Development

: The male attracts females to his territory. Breeding takes place there. The male is brightly coloured and aggressive to other males. The male will court the female back to the nest that he has built where she will lay her eggs (up to 700) while the male pours milt (sperm) over them. The female collects and incubates the eggs and larvae in her mouth where they are well protected. The females rarely eat during the incubation and have little movement. The fry (baby fish) are usually about 9 – 11mm in length when hatched.

Adaptations

: Lake Malawi cichlids have a remarkable degree of specialization. They do not compete for food as each species has very specific diet needs: fish eaters, algae scrapers, insectivores, predators, etc. The species are very specific in habitat choice: some live only among the rocks , others in open water ,others along sandy beaches. They have evolved behaviours and tooth structures to live this way. Each species is different and exploits its environment in its own way.

Threats to Survival

: Overfishing by the local fishermen of Lake Malawi due to the high population growth rates.

Water pollution from agricultural runoff which results in the destruction of the fishes’ habitat.

Soil erosion due to deforestation.

Status

: Many are threatened

Zoo Diet

: commercial fish flakes and vegetarian fish gelatins specially formulated by Toronto Zoo nutrition staff


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